University Of Ghana School Of Law Programmes

University Of Ghana School Of Law Programmes

DESCRIPTION OF COURSES
FLAW 101 Ghana Legal System
The major legal systems of the world, Classification of the branches of the Law, Introduction of
British Jurisdiction into Gold Coast and Sources of Law – Common Law, Equity, Statutes,
Subsidiary Legislation, History of the Court System and Jurisdiction and powers of the courts and
quasi-judicial bodies. Alternative procedures for the settlement of disputes, The Legal profession and
its role in Society and Legal Aid, Language and Study Skills and Legal Writing, Techniques of Legal
Research, Oral Presentation.
FLAW 102 Legal Method
The Nature of Law – Function & Theory of Law, The Theories and mechanics of judicial decisionmaking,
Elements of Civil and Criminal Procedure, The doctrine of Stare decisis and its operation in
the Ghana Legal System, General principles of statutory interpretation, Remedies.
FLAW 103 Law of Contract I
Contract as a legal category in the Ghana Legal Systems Historical development and assumptions
Formation of Contract, Enforceability of Agreements as Contracts in Law (Doctrine of
Consideration, Formal Requirements). Privity of Contract; Assignments; Agency, The contents and
Types of Contracts.
FLAW 104 Law of Contract II
Vitiating Factors (Mistake, Misrepresentation, Duress and Undue Influence). Public Policy and
Enforcement of Contractual Obligations, Discharge of Contracts, Remedies for Breach of Contract
(Damages, Equitable remedies and procedural Strategies), Contract Law and Economic Realities.
FLAW 105 Constitutional Law I (Constitutional Theory)
Constitutional Law – Problems of definition and content, Constitutionalism, The Relationship
between municipal and International Law, Coup de `tats/Revolutions and continuity of Constitutions,
The concept of separation of powers, The supremacy of the Constitution and judicial review, The
Concept of the Rule of Law, Human Rights, Natural Justice.
FLAW 106 Constitutional Law II (Constitution of Ghana)
The Constitutional Evolution of Ghana, The Executive, The Parliament, The Judiciary, Independent
Institutions, The Rights and Duties of the Citizen, The Law of Citizenship Commissions/
Committees of Enquiry, The Electoral Process, Proceedings involving the Republic, Local
Government, Traditional Constitutionalism – Chieftaincy Law, Outlines of Judicial Remedies.
General Course Description: English for Law Students
The broad objective of English for Law Students is to equip the students with the language skills to
enhance their ability to speak and write English fluently. The first semester component aims at
consolidating the knowledge of the students in English grammar and usage. During the course of the
semester, students will learn general grammatical principles and do extensive exercises in grammar
and usage. They will also practice the use of the dictionary and thesaurus to enable them to get a hold
on the range and variety of the English lexicon. In the second semester, the students will focus on
composing well-organized, well-supported, and coherent paragraphs. The paragraph as a textstructuring
tool in reading and writing will be amply exemplified. Additionally, students will be
introduced to evaluative language in expository writing. By the end of the course, students should be
able to speak and write English with felicity.
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FLAW 107 English for Law Students I (Grammar and usage)
1. Varieties of English: British and American English, regional and national varieties
2. Elements of grammar: sentence elements, parts of speech
3. Sentence structure: the simple sentence, coordination and apposition, the complex
sentence, sentence variety
4. Avoiding pitfalls: run-ons, irregular verbs, subject-verb agreement, consistent verb
tense, pronoun agreement, reference, and point of view; adjectives and adverbs,
misplaced modifiers, dangling modifiers, faulty parallelism
5. Punctuation: the comma, the semicolon, other marks, common punctuation errors
6. Word Use: the dictionary and thesaurus, spelling, vocabulary development,
commonly confused words, effective word choice
FLAW 108 English for Law Students II (Paragraph writing: structure, development, and
style)
1. The Paragraph: the single paragraph, the multiple-paragraph text; paragraph unity,
support, and coherence
2. Paragraph structure and reading strategies: information relationships within and
across paragraphs; given and new information
3. Paragraph structure and writing strategies: making and supporting a point;
organizing and connecting specific evidence; achieving structural coherence
4. Evaluative language: reporting verbs, qualifications and strength of claim,
evaluative nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs
5. Text analysis of a variety of texts (the writings of Jane Austen, Charlotte
Bronte,Thomas Hardy, D.H. Lawrence, Shakespeare, Kofi Awoonor, Ayi
Kwei Armah, Ama Atta Aidoo, Paul Ansah, Ngugi Wa Thiong’o etc.)
6. Proofreading and editing techniques
FLAW 109 Logic for Law Students
The Course in Logic for Law Students is designed to equip the student with practical abilities to
discriminate between having motives vs. Good logical reasons for belief in a statement, to evaluate
quality evidence in support of a conclusion, to contrast deductive proof with inductive support
provided by evidence, to contrast value judgment with factual judgment.
The Course will introduce the student to the following specific topics - Varieties of Speech act;
Varieties of passage-length communication; Definitions in focus; Understanding logical structure of
an argument as the truth conditions of its component statements; Understanding relation between
evidence and empirical hypothesis; Cause and effect reasoning – application of induction; Polemical
fallacies and rhetorical ploys; Ethics and Law.
FLAW 207 Torts I (Intentional Tort)
Nature, History, Aims of the Law of Torts, General Principles of Liability, Choice of Law in torts
Cases in Ghana, International Interference with Person and Property, Economic Torts, Nuisance, The
rule is Rylands v. Fletcher, Vicarious Liability
FLAW 208 Torts II (Negligence & Defamation)
General Negligence, Specific Negligence Actions (Employer’s liability to his employees, Products
Liability, Occupiers Liability, Liability for Statements - Negligent statements, Deceit), Statutory
duties, Death in relation to Torts, Defamation.
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FLAW 209 Alternative Dispute Resolution
This course will introduce the student to the spectrum of ADR mechanisms and discuss particularly
Negotiation, Mediation and Arbitration. The law of Ghana relating to ADR will be examined and
students taken through practical demonstrations of the workings of Negotiation, Mediation and
Arbitration.
FLAW 218 Administrative Law
Nature of Administrative Law, Constitutional doctrines and theories relevant to Administrative Law,
The Executive Branch of Government: Administrative and Public Sector Institutions, Local
Government, The Law making powers of the Administration, Natural Justice and the Administration,
Review of discretionary powers, Judicial remedies, Extra-judicial remedies (Commission of Human
Rights and Administrative Justice, Administrative Tribunals), Commission and Committee of
Enquiry, Proceedings between the state and its servants and agents.
FLAW 211 Immovable Property I (Customary Land Law)
1. Preliminary Matters: The Concept of Land and Immovable Property, The Nature and Scope
of the Law of Immovable Property, The Concept of Ownership and the Appro-priate
Terminology for the Description and Analysis of the System of Land Tenure.
2. The Customary Law Interests In Land: The Allodial Title, The Usufructuary Interest,
Customary Law Tenancies
3. Persons Who Can Hold Interests In Land: The Stool and Management of Stool Property,
The Family a Holder of Interests in Land, Marital Family Property.
FLAW 212 Immovable Property II
1. Common Law Interests in Land: Introduction to the Law of Tenure and Estates, Equitable
and Legal Interests, The Law of Landlord and Tenant, Co-Ownership.
2. Uncertainty in Land Titles And Insecurity In Land Transactions And Attempted Solutions:
Nature, Estoppel, Limitation of Actions, Registration of Instruments Affecting Land, Land
Title Registration.
3. Compulsory Acquisition And State Administration Of Land Introduction To The Law Of
Natural Resources: Introduction to Minerals and Mining Law, Introduction to Forestry
Law, Concessions.
4. Introduction to Physical Planning Law
5. Land Law Reform
FLAW 213 Criminal Law I (General Principles)
Nature and Scope of Criminal Law, The Requirements of Criminal Liability and Mens Rea,
Causation, Capacity, General Defences, Special Defences: (Intoxication and Insanity, Provocation).
FLAW 214 Criminal Law II (Specific Offenses)
The Law of Attempt – Inchoate Offences and Parties, Abatement and Conspiracy, Offences Against
the Person: Homicide, Offences Against the right of property, Offences Against Public Morals and
Public Order, Offences Against the State: Treason and Sedition.
FLAW 221 Public International Law I
Introduction: Nature and Context of International Law, Sources of International Law, Subjects of
International Law, State Territory and Jurisdiction, The Law of the Sea, Air and Outer Space.
FLAW 222 Public International Law II
Individuals, Nationality and state Responsibility, Law of Treaties, Diplomatic Law, Human Rights,
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Settlement of Disputes, The Use of Force, International Organization.
FLAW 251 Gender and the Law I
Gender from a Historical and Anthropological Perspective, Women’s Status from a Cultural
Perspective: Customary Norms and Societal Values, Gender and Global Issues: (Population
Planning, Women and the World’s Economy, Women and Political Leadership, Women and
Pornography; Women and Prostitution).
FLAW 252 Gender and the Law II (Selected Topics)
1. Legal issues in Family Law: Marriage, Divorce, Custody and Support of Children, Surrogate
Mother Contracts.
2. Gender and health – Legal Issues Involving Reproductive Matters: Access to Contraception,
Abortion, Sterilization, Infanticide, Drug and Alcohol Abuse During Pregnancy, Female
Circumcision
3. Legal Issues Involving Gender and Criminal Law: rape, Domestic Violence
4. Issues Involving Education
5. Gender and Employment: Legal Issues Involving Restrictive Access to Certain Occupations;
discriminatory Practices in Hiring and promotion; Sexual Harassment, Family Leave Policies.
6. Legal Issues Involving Women and Property; Women and Inheritance
7. Legal Issues Involving Women and Development; Women in Political Process
FLAW 265 Criminology I
The meaning, nature and scope of criminology. The evolution of criminological thought:
anthropological theories; biological theories, socio-economic and environmental theories, War,
migration and other factors. Phenomenology, Aetiology of crime; Victimology. Legal principles
relating to insanity, mental deficiency and other forms of mental in capacity. Criminological Aspects
of Victimless Offences: Prostitution, Homosexuality and Lesbianism; Gambling. Crimes of
Violence: Robbery, Homicide, Rape and Sexual Offences. Organised Crime: White Collar Offences
and Economic Crimes. Theories of Criminal Behaviour.
FLAW 266 Criminology II
1. Drug Addiction and Alcoholism: Drug Law Enforcement. Juvenile Gangs and Delinquency;
Child Abuse and Juvenile Justice.
2. Sentencing; Theories of Punishment: Custodial And Non-Custodial Punishment: Community
Service.
3. The Prisons, Borstal Institutions and Prisoners’ Rights, Treatment Techniques and Strategies.
4. UN Standard Minimum Rules, Torture.
5. Health Needs of Prisoners, Vocational, Technical and Religious Orientation.
6. The Police and Law Enforcement – Mob Control.
7. Criminological Research, Statistics and Forecasting.
8. Traditional and Modern Crime Control Programmes and Roles of NGOs, Social Workers, and
Religious Bodies.
Destitution: Orphanage; Street Children; Begging For Alms, The Aged And Handicapped, Including
Lepers and Lunatic Patients.
FLAW 337 Natural Resource Law I
Rights, Institutions and Non-Financial Obligations: Introductory Survey of the Mining Sector,
Mineral Exploration and Production Rights, Introductory Survey of the Petroleum Sector, Petroleum
Exploration and Production Rights, Land rights and Mineral/Petroleum Rights, Environmental and
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Safety Issues in Mineral/Petroleum Operations, The Mineral Resources of the Seabed and Ocean
Floor, Legal Regulation of Trees and Forests.
FLAW 338 Natural Resource Law II
Marketing and Financial Issues: Financing Mineral and Petroleum Operations, The fiscal Regime for
Mineral and Petroleum Operations, Marketing Arrangements for Mineral/Petroleum, Exchange
Control, Electricity Supply Arrangements, Stability Issues, Dispute Settlement.
FLAW 343 Conflict of Laws I (General Part)
Introduction to the Conflict of Laws. Concept and Meaning of Foreign Law; proof of Foreign Law;
Exclusion of Applicable Foreign Law. Domicile – The Traditional Rules and their Application in
Ghana; Developments Around the World. Jurisdiction – In personam; In Rem; Exceptions to
Jurisdiction – sovereign immunity. Foreign Judgements and Foreign Arbitral Awards. Contracts –
Determination of the Proper Law, Law governing Specific Topics. Torts – Historical Development
of the rule for Determining the Applicable Law; Various Views as to the Applicable Law – Lex
Loci; Phillips v. Eyre as modified by Chaplin v. Boys, Proper Law of Tort.
FLAW 344 Conflict of Laws II
Movable and Immovable property, Succession, Family Law (in outline only) – Capacity to marry;
Matrimonial uses; Recognition of Foreign Decrees. Domestic Relations – Custody, Guardianship,
Legitimacy, Legitimation and Adoption. Classification, Incidental Question, Renvoi, Substance and
Procedure, Theories and Methods.
FLAW 345 Commercial Law I (Sale of Goods and Hire Purchase)
A. Sale of Goods: Nature and Formation of a Contract of Sale, Types of obligations Created
by the Sale of Goods Act, Duties of the Seller, Duties of the Buyer, Transfer of Property and risk ,
Remedies of the Seller, Remedies of the Buyer, C.I.F. AND F.O.B. Sales
B. The Law on Hire-Purchase: Nature of Hire Purchase Agreements, History of Hire
Purchase Law in Ghana – (pre 1958 to date), Hirer’s right of termination and Completion, Owner’s
right of recovery, Implied terms, Third Party Rights.
FLAW 346 Commercial Law II (Agency and Banking)
Definition and Existence of Agency, Capacity to act as Principal, Capacity to act as Agent, Agent’s
duties to his Principal, Agent’s rights against the Principal, Relationship of Principal and Agent with
third Party, Banks, Banking, and Non-Banking Financial Institutions, Negotiable Instruments and
their Kin, Banker-Customer Relations, Securities Regulation.
FLAW 347 International Human Rights Law I
The Evolution of the Concept of Human Rights, Historical Antecedents of Human Rights, The
United Nations Human Rights System, The European System for the Protection of Human Rights,
The Inter-American Human Rights System, The African System of Human and People’s Right
System, The CSCE and the Helsinki Final Act, Non-Governmental Organizations, Domestic
Absorptions.
FLAW 348 International Human Rights Law II (Specified Topics)
International Humanitarian Law, The Principle of Equality or Non-Discrimination with Particular
Reference to Women’s Rights, The Rights of the Child, Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Human
Rights and the Criminal Justice System, The Rights of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, The
International Law of Refugees and Aliens, Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspective.
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FLAW 351 Industrial Law I
1. Relationship of employer and employee
2. Contract of employment
3. Formation and discharge
4. Contract of apprenticeship
5. Wages
6. Employer’s rights and liabilities
(i) Towards Employees
(ii) Towards Third Parties
FLAW 352 Industrial Law II
1. Industrial legislation
a. Legislation Regulating Conditions in Factories, Shops, Offices, Mines etc.
b. Industrial Injuries and Workmen’s Compensation – Social Security.
c. Legislation regulating Industrial and Business Operations.
2. The law of trade unions and industrial relations:
Collective Bargaining; Settlement of Industrial Disputes.
FLAW 353 Environmental Law I
Introduction: Evolution, Nature, Object and Development of International Environmental Law and
Policy. The Sources of International environmental Law. Breaches of Environmental Law and
Liability for Environmental Harm. Regulation of Environmental Sectors – International/Domestic
(Protection of Marine Environment against Pollution, Protecting Inland Waters and Rivers,
Combating Air Pollution, Protection of Wildlife). Trans Sectoral Problems (Toxic or Dangerous
Products and Wastes, Radio activity, Ozone Depletion, Global Warming). Environmental Impact
Assessment.
FLAW 354 Environmental Law II
Marine Environment, Biodiversity Conservation, Regionalism: Africa and the EC, The Ghanaian
Environment, Trade, War, Human Rights and the Environment: An overview.
FLAW 355 Company Law I
Concept of the Corporation. Statutory Commercial corporations.
Companies Registered Under the Companies Code. Corporate personality; Lifting the veil.
Formation of Companies. Promoters; Pre-incorporation Contracts; the Regulations; Invitations to
the Public; Prospectus; Commencement of Business. Companies’ Securities Share and Debentures;
Classes of Shares. Becoming a Member: Allotments; Share Certificates. Rights of Members: Class
Rights; Variation of Class Rights; Member’s Liability.
Capital: Stated Capital; Issued Capital; Treasury Shares; Increase of Capital; Reduction of Capital
Dividends; Debenture holders; Rights and Powers.
FLAW 356 Company Law II
Actions on behalf of the Company; The General Meeting; Notices procedure; Voting; Resolutions.
Directors and other officers; Appointment; Removal; Duties Rights and Powers.
Liability of Company in contract; Tort; Crime; Investors, Protection; Oppression of Minorities;
Investigations by the Registrar; Annual Returns.
Arrangements and Amalgamations: Private Companies; Subsidiary Companies; Guarantee
Companies. Liquidation (in outline)
Partnerships and Unincorporated Business Associations.
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FLAW 363 International Humanitarian Law I
This course will focus on the Theory and Practice of International Humanitarian Law (IHL). It will
explore the Definition and history of International Humanitarian Law: the relationship between
humanitarian law, human rights and disarmament; Law of the Hague and Law of Geneva:
implementation of IHL and Sanctions for the violations of IHL.
FLAW 364 International Humanitarian Law II
The focus will be on the examination of recent tendencies of IHL and the mandate and activities of
the International Committee of the RED Cross (ICRC). The place of IHL in non-structured conflicts
and the problems of the prohibition of certain weapons will be discussed. The status of the ICRC and
the legal bases of its actions, the emblem and the activities of the ICRC in Africa will be considered.
FLAW 410 Long Essay
As required of undergraduate students.
FLAW 403 Jurisprudence I
Introduction – The Nature of Jurisprudence, Natural Law Theories, Positivism, The Pure Theory of
Law, Historical School of Jurisprudence, Realism – American and Scandinavian.
FLAW 404 Jurisprudence II
Sociological School of Jurisprudence, Customary Law, Marxist Theory of Law and State, Theories
of Rights – Hohfeldian Rights, Human Rights (if not offered as an Elective) etc., Gender and the
Law, Law and Development, Islamic Law
FLAW 407 Equity & Trusts
Historical Background: Origin, Nature and Development of Equity. Maxims of Equity, Remedies:
Specific Performance, Injunctions, Rectification, Rescission, Account, Delivery up and Cancellation
of Documents., Declaratory Judgment, Uses and Trusts.
FLAW 408 Law of Succession
1. Pledges and Mortgages
2. Succession
Testate: Customary and Statutory
Intestate: i. A brief outline of the Customary aspect.
ii. Intestate Succession Law, 1985 (PNDCL. 111
iii. Effect of PNDCL.111 on (a) Marriage Ordinance, Cap. 127, (b) Marriage of
Mohammedan Ordinance, Cap 129, (c) Customary Law.
3. The Dead as property.
FLAW 431 Intellectual Property Law I
Introduction to Intellectual Property Law: Historical background, characteristics and definition of
intellectual property law. Main fields of intellectual property namely, patents, utility models,
industrial designs, trade marks, trade secrets, copyright law neighbouring rights
Patents: Evolution of patent law and its justification, Conditions of Patentability, National, Regional
and International administration of the patent system, Rights of the Patentee and scope of protection,
Utility models
Copyright Law and Neighbouring rights: Historical development of copyright law – national and
international levels, Basic principles of copyright law, The impact of emerging technologies on
copyright, Authors societies, Neighbouring Rights.
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FLAW 432 Intellectual Property Law II
1. Trade Marks and Unfair Competition: Introductory overview of trade mark law, Trade mark
rights and protection, National and International administration of works and registration,
General principles of unfair competition law, The Economic tort of passing off.
2. Industrial Design: Objective of an industrial design – Legal System, The varying regimes of
industrial design Law – National and International.
3. Confidential Information and Trade Secrets: The Nature of Protectable Confidential Information
and its obligations, Employee relationships, Defence and remedies.
4. Transfer of Technology: The concept of technology transfer, Licensing agreements including
compulsory licensing, Economic effects of Intellectual Property, Ghanaian Law and Practice on
technology Transfers.
5. Regional Arrangements
FLAW 435 International Trade Law
The Law of international Trade – the importance of trade; sources of Law of International Trade law;
formulating agencies etc., etc. The outline of the sale transaction – International Sales of Goods;
special terms, INCOTERMS etc. International Sales contracts based on Sea carriage – c.i.f., fob, C &
F, ex works etc. Insurance of Goods in the International Sale Transaction (in outline). Payment in
international sales (Letters of Credit etc.) Disputes in international transactions – the conflict of laws,
the problems of conflict, proper law of the contract etc.; proceedings and jurisdiction; the Mareva
injunction; the Mareva injunction; the enforcement of foreign judgments and awards.
FLAW 436 International Investment Law
Introductory – Principal issues in controversy regarding foreign investments and the Sovereign
Authority of states over foreign investments. International Contracts, Nationalisation and
Compensation, Permanent Sovereignty of states over natural resources, Codes of conduct for
Multinational Corporations, Transfer of Technology, New Methods of Investment Dispute
Settlement.
FLAW 411 Law of Taxation I
Tax Policy in a Developing Country: The purposes and uses of taxation; Taxation and saving;
Taxation and capital formation; the differences between taxation in high income countries and
taxation in law income countries; Consideration of some taxation principles. The effects of various
kinds of taxes.
FLAW 412 Law of Taxation II
The Export Tax: The methods, effects, advantages and disadvantages of taxing exports.
The Income Tax: What is income? Tax policy and the income tax; Consideration of the taxability of
various kinds of receipts; Capital gains; Deductions; Taxation of the corporation and its
shareholders; Taxation of foreign income, of non-residents and of foreign investment in Ghana.
Other Taxes: The sales tax; Excise taxes; Import duties; the excess profits tax; VAT.
An overview of the Ghanaian Tax System: Revenue; Administration
FLAW 483 Family Law I
Applicable Law. Regimes of law governing marriage and domestic relations in Ghana.
The Family: Contracts to marry; common law and customary law. The contract of Marriage under
the Marriage Ordinance; Formalities; Capacity; Void and Voidable Marriages. Legal effects of
Converture; consortum, separation, maintenance. Husband and Wife.
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Termination of Marriage; Grounds for divorce Customary Marriage: formalities, incidents, legal
effect of coverture. Role of family in customary marriage. Dissolution of marriage.
FLAW 484 Family Law II
Parent and Child
Legitimacy in common law and customary law
Parents’ rights and duties with respect to their children
Custody; Protection; Maintenance
Vicarious liability of Parents; Adoption; Guardianship
Family Property: Effect of marriage on spouse’s property
FLAW 485 Law of Evidence I
The objectives of the law of evidence. Materiality; the formulation of issues of fact; Judicial notice;
Burden of proof; quantum of proof; presumptions; Relative function of judge and jury; Real
evidence Circumstantial evidence: Remoteness; Undue prejudice; Similar circumstances; Other
crimes; Habit; Usage; Custom; Character.
FLAW 486 Law of Evidence II
Witnesses: Order of examination; Competence; Privilege, The exclusionary rules: Best evidence;
hearsay and its exceptions (e.g. evidence of tradition); opinion; res inter alios acta Res Judicata and
Collateral Estoppel.
FLAW 487 Insurance Law I
The Nature of Insurance: The Contract of Insurance – Relation to contracts of Gaming and Wagering
– The distinction between Gaming Contracts and Insurance Contracts and its development – “p.p.i.”
and “honour” policies – Types of Insurance – Marine and non- Marine risks – the distinguishing
features of marine, life, fire and liability insurance.
The Concept of Insurable Interest: Development of the concept of insurable interest – the principle of
indemnity and its relation to insurable - types of insurable interest. New developments.
The making of an Insurance contract: The insurance agent; nature of his authority and his liability –
The Contract and special terminology – the nature, contents and function of the proposal form –
interim receipts and cover notes.
FLAW 488 Insurance Law II
The rights and Duties of the Parties under the Contract: The principle of utmost good faith -
the materiality of disclosures by the insured – the effect of non-disclosure and misrepresentation –
over-and under-insurance - payment of the premium – return of the premium and its consequences.
Claims: The right to make a claim – the quantum of the claim – the “loss” that creates an entitlement
to claim – Salvage and the insurer’s entitlement to it.
Motor Vehicles (Third Party) Insurance – an outline of case-law and practice in Ghana.
Note: Students offering this course will be expected to have more than an average grasp of the
principles of governing the law of standard contracts. During the course they will be expected to
familiarize themselves with the main forms of standard policies in use in motor and fire insurance in
Ghana.
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(B)POST- FIRST DEGREE INTAKES FROM 2012/2013 ACADEMIC YEAR
(i) Admissions Requirement
The entry requirement for the Post-First Degree LLB Programme is a good first
degree from a recognized University. A recognized University refers to all
Universities accredited by the National Accreditation Board. Suitably qualified
applicants are required to participate in a selection examination and an
interview.
(ii) Promotion Requirements from Level 300 to 400
a. Pass: A student is deemed to have passed, if he/she has a minimum of 30
credits and a maximum of 42 credits of core courses and electives at the end of
Level 300.
b. Withdrawal: A student who does not pass as prescribed by (2a) shall be
asked by the Registrar to withdraw from the University.
(iii) Graduation Requirements (LLB)
A student shall be deemed to have satisfied the requirements for graduation if:
a) He/she has satisfied all General University and Faculty requirements;
b) He/she has accumulated a minimum of 72 credits, including all core courses;
c) He/she must not have failed any of core courses (where failure means a grade
below D);
d) He/she must not have failed more than 12 credits of elective courses (where failure
means a grade below D).

FLAW 301/361 Ghana Legal System
The major legal systems of the world, Classification of the branches of the Law, Introduction of
British Jurisdiction into Gold Coast and Sources of Law – Common Law, Equity, Statutes,
Subsidiary Legislation, History of the Court System and Jurisdiction and powers of the courts and
quasi-judicial bodies. Alternative procedures for the settlement of disputes, The Legal profession and
its role in Society and Legal Aid, Language and Study Skills and Legal Writing, Techniques of Legal
Research, Oral Presentation.
FLAW 302/362 Legal Method
The Nature of Law – Function & Theory of Law, The Theories and mechanics of judicial
decision-making, Elements of Civil and Criminal Procedure, The doctrine of Stare decisis and its
operation in the Ghana Legal System, General principles of statutory interpretation, Remedies.
FLAW 303/381 Law of Contract I
Contract as a legal category in the Ghana Legal Systems Historical development and assumptions
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Formation of Contract, Enforceability of Agreements as Contracts in Law (Doctrine of
Consideration, Formal Requirements). Privity of Contract; Assignments; Agency, The contents and
Types of Contracts.
FLAW 304/382 Law of Contract II
Vitiating Factors (Mistake, Misrepresentation, Duress and Undue Influence). Public Policy and
Enforcement of Contractual Obligations, Discharge of Contracts, Remedies for Breach of Contract
(Damages, Equitable remedies and procedural Strategies), Contract Law and Economic Realities.
FLAW 305/391 Constitutional Law I (Constitutional Theory)
Constitutional Law – Problems of definition and content, Constitutionalism, The Relationship
between municipal and International Law, Coup de `tats/Revolutions and continuity of Constitutions,
The concept of separation of powers, The supremacy of the Constitution and judicial review, The
Concept of the Rule of Law, Human Rights, Natural Justice.
FLAW 306/392 Constitutional Law II (Constitution of Ghana)
The Constitutional Evolution of Ghana, The Executive, The Parliament, The Judiciary,
Independent Institutions, The Rights and Duties of the Citizen, The Law of Citizenship
Commissions/ Committees of Enquiry, The Electoral Process, Proceedings involving the
Republic, Local Government, Traditional Constitutionalism – Chieftaincy Law, Outlines of
Judicial Remedies.
FLAW 307/317 Torts I (Intentional Tort)
Nature, History, Aims of the Law of Torts, General Principles of Liability, Choice of Law in torts
Cases in Ghana, International Interference with Person and Property, Economic Torts, Nuisance,
The rule is Rylands v. Fletcher, Vicarious Liability
FLAW 308/318 Torts II (Negligence & Defamation)
General Negligence, Specific Negligence Actions (Employer’s liability to his employees, Products
Liability, Occupiers Liability, Liability for Statements - Negligent statements, Deceit), Statutory
duties, Death in relation to Torts, Defamation.
FLAW 311/373 Immovable Property I (Customary Land Law)
1. Preliminary Matters: The Concept of Land and Immovable Property, The Nature and
Scope of the Law of Immovable Property, The Concept of Ownership and the Appropriate
Terminology for the Description and Analysis of the System of Land Tenure.
2. The Customary Law Interests in Land: The Allodial Title, The Usufructuary Interest,
Customary Law Tenancies
3. Persons Who Can Hold Interests In Land: The Stool and Management of Stool
Property, The Family a Holder of Interests in Land, Marital Family Property.
FLAW 312/374 Immovable Property II
4. Common Law Interests in Land: Introduction to the Law of Tenure and Estates,
Equitable and Legal Interests, the Law of Landlord and Tenant, Co-Ownership.
5. Uncertainty in Land Titles and Insecurity in Land Transactions and Attempted
Solutions: Nature, Estoppel, Limitation of Actions, Registration of Instruments Affecting
Land, Land Title Registration.
6. Compulsory Acquisition and State Administration of Land Introduction to the Law of
Natural Resources: Introduction to Minerals and Mining Law, Introduction to Forestry
Law, Concessions.
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7. Introduction to Physical Planning Law
8. Land Law Reform
FLAW 313/371 Criminal Law I (General Principles)
Nature and Scope of Criminal Law, The Requirements of Criminal Liability and Mens Rea,
Causation, Capacity, General Defences, Special Defences: (Intoxication and Insanity,
Provocation).
FLAW 314/372 Criminal Law II (Specific Offences)
The Law of Attempt – Inchoate Offences and Parties, Abatement and Conspiracy, Offences Against
the Person: Homicide, Offences Against the right of property, Offences Against Public Morals and
Public Order, Offences Against the State: Treason and Sedition.
FLAW 321/323 Public International Law I
Introduction: Nature and Context of International Law, Sources of International Law, Subjects of
International Law, State Territory and Jurisdiction, The Law of the Sea, Air and Outer Space.
FLAW 322/324 Public International Law II
Individuals, Nationality and state Responsibility, Law of Treaties, Diplomatic Law, Human Rights,
Settlement of Disputes, The Use of Force, International Organisation.
FLAW 425/492 Administrative Law
Nature of Administrative Law, Constitutional doctrines and theories relevant to Administrative Law,
The Executive Branch of Government: Administrative and Public Sector Institutions, Local
Government, The Law making powers of the Administration, Natural Justice and the Administration,
Review of discretionary powers, Judicial remedies, Extra-judicial remedies (Commission of Human
Rights and Administrative Justice, Administrative Tribunals), Commission and Committee of
Enquiry, Proceedings between the state and its servants and agents.
FLAW 400/410 Long Essay
As required of undergraduate students.
FLAW 401/403 Jurisprudence I
Introduction – The Nature of Jurisprudence, Natural Law Theories, Positivism, The Pure Theory of
Law, Historical School of Jurisprudence, Realism – American and Scandinavian.
FLAW 402/404 Jurisprudence II
Sociological School of Jurisprudence, Customary Law, Marxist Theory of Law and State,
Theories of Rights – Hohfeldian Rights, Human Rights (if not offered as an Elective) etc., Gender
and the Law, Law and Development, Islamic Law
FLAW 433/407 Equity and Trusts
Historical Background: Origin, Nature and Development of Equity. Maxims of Equity, Remedies:
Specific Performance, Injunctions, Rectification, Rescission, Account, Delivery up and Cancellation
of Documents., Declaratory Judgement, Uses and Trusts.
FLAW 434/408 Law of Succession
1. Pledges and Mortgages
2. Succession
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Testate: Customary and Statutory
Intestate: i. A brief outline of the Customary aspect.
ii. Intestate Succession Law, 1985 (PNDCL. 111
iii. Effect of PNDCL.111 on (a) Marriage Ordinance, Cap. 127, (b) Marriage of
Mohammedan Ordinance, Cap 129, (c) Customary Law.
3. The Dead as property.
FLAW 435/405 International Trade Law
The Law of international Trade – the importance of trade; sources of Law of International Trade law;
formulating agencies etc., etc. The outline of the sale transaction – International Sales of Goods;
special terms, INCOTERMS etc. International Sales contracts based on Sea carriage – c.i.f., fob, C &
F, ex works etc. Insurance of Goods in the International Sale Transaction (in outline). Payment in
international sales (Letters of Credit etc.) Disputes in international transactions – the conflict of laws,
the problems of conflict, proper law of the contract etc.; proceedings and jurisdiction; the Mareva
injunction; the Mareva injunction; the enforcement of foreign judgments and awards.
FLAW 406/436 International Investment Law
Introductory – Principal issues in controversy regarding foreign investments and the Sovereign
Authority of states over foreign investments. International Contracts, Nationalisation and
Compensation, Permanent Sovereignty of states over natural resources, Codes of conduct for
Multinational Corporations, Transfer of Technology, New Methods of Investment Dispute
Settlement.
FLAW 437/475 Natural Resource Law I
Rights, Institutions and Non-Financial Obligations: Introductory Survey of the Mining Sector,
Mineral Exploration and Production Rights, Introductory Survey of the Petroleum Sector, Petroleum
Exploration and Production Rights, Land rights and Mineral/Petroleum Rights, Environmental and
Safety Issues in Mineral/Petroleum Operations, The Mineral Resources of the Seabed and Ocean
Floor, Legal Regulation of Trees and Forests.
FLAW 438/476 Natural Resource Law II
Marketing and Financial Issues: Financing Mineral and Petroleum Operations, The fiscal Regime
for Mineral and Petroleum Operations, Marketing Arrangements for Mineral/Petroleum, Exchange
Control, Electricity Supply Arrangements, Stability Issues, Dispute Settlement.
FLAW 431/441 Intellectual Property Law I
1.Introduction to Intellectual Property Law: Historical background, characteristics and definition
of intellectual property law. Main fields of intellectual property namely, patents, utility models,
industrial designs, trade marks, trade secrets, copyright law neighbouring rights
2.Patents: Evolution of patent law and its justification, Conditions of Patentability, National,
Regional and International administration of the patent system, Rights of the Patentee and scope of
protection, Utility models
3.Copyright Law and Neighbouring rights: Historical development of copyright law – national
and international levels, Basic principles of copyright law, The impact of emerging technologies on
copyright, Authors societies, Neighbouring Rights.
FLAW 432/442 Intellectual Property Law II
1. Trade Marks and Unfair Competition: Introductory overview of trade mark law, Trade mark
rights and protection, National and International administration of works and registration,
General principles of unfair competition law, The Economic tort of passing off.
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2. Industrial Design: Objective of an industrial design – Legal System, The varying regimes of
industrial design Law – National and International.
3. Confidential Information and Trade Secrets: The Nature of Protectable Confidential
Information and its obligations, Employee relationships, Defence and remedies.
4. Transfer of Technology: The concept of technology transfer, Licensing agreements including
compulsory licensing, Economic effects of Intellectual Property, Ghanaian Law and Practice
on technology Transfers.
5. Regional Arrangements
FLAW 443/467 Conflict of Laws I (General Part)
Introduction to the Conflict of Laws. Concept and Meaning of Foreign Law; proof of Foreign
Law; Exclusion of Applicable Foreign Law. Domicile – The Traditional Rules and their
Application in Ghana; Developments around the World. Jurisdiction – In personam; In Rem;
Exceptions to Jurisdiction – sovereign immunity. Foreign Judgements and Foreign Arbitral
Awards. Contracts – Determination of the Proper Law, Law governing Specific Topics. Torts –
Historical Development of the rule for Determining the Applicable Law; Various Views as to the
Applicable Law – Lex Loci; Phillips v. Eyre as modified by Chaplin v. Boys, Proper Law of Tort.
FLAW 444/468 Conflict of Laws II
Movable and Immovable property, Succession, Family Law (in outline only) – Capacity to marry;
Matrimonial uses; Recognition of Foreign Decrees. Domestic Relations – Custody, Guardianship,
Legitimacy, Legitimation and Adoption. Classification, Incidental Question, Renvoi, Substance and
Procedure, Theories and Methods.
FLAW 445/497 Commercial Law I (Sale of Goods and Hire Purchase)
1. Sale of Goods: Nature and Formation of a Contract of Sale, Types of obligations Created by the
Sale of Goods Act, Duties of the Seller, Duties of the Buyer, Transfer of Property and risk ,
Remedies of the Seller, Remedies of the Buyer, C.I.F. AND F.O.B. Sales
2. The Law on Hire-Purchase: Nature of Hire Purchase Agreements, History of Hire Purchase
Law in Ghana – (pre 1958 to date), Hirer’s right of termination and Completion, Owner’s right of
recovery, Implied terms, Third Party Rights.
FLAW 446/498 Commercial Law II (Agency and Banking)
Definition and Existence of Agency, Capacity to act as Principal, Capacity to act as Agent, Agent’s
duties to his Principal, Agent’s rights against the Principal, Relationship of Principal and Agent with
third Party, Banks, Banking, and Non-Banking Financial Institutions, Negotiable Instruments and
their Kin, Banker-Customer Relations, Securities Regulation.
FLAW 447 International Human Rights Law I
The Evolution of the Concept of Human Rights, Historical Antecedents of Human Rights, The
United Nations Human Rights System, the European System for the Protection of Human Rights,
The Inter-American Human Rights System, The African System of Human and People’s Right
System, The CSCE and the Helsinki Final Act, Non-Governmental Organizations, Domestic
Absorptions.
FLAW 448/478 International Human Rights Law II (Specified Topics)
International Humanitarian Law, The Principle of Equality or Non-Discrimination with Particular
Reference to Women’s Rights, The Rights of the Child, Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Human
Rights and the Criminal Justice System, The Rights of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, The
298
International Law of Refugees and Aliens, Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspective.
FLAW 451/495 Gender and the Law I
Gender from an Historical and Anthropological Perspective, Women’s Status from a Cultural
Perspective: Customary Norms and Societal Values, Gender and Global Issues: (Population
Planning, Women and the
World’s Economy, Women and Political Leadership, Women and Pornography; Women and
Prostitution).
FLAW 452/496 Gender and the Law II (Selected Topics)
1. Legal issues in Family Law: Marriage, Divorce, Custody and Support of Children,
Surrogate Mother Contracts.
2. Gender and health – Legal Issues Involving Reproductive Matters: Access to
Contraception, Abortion, Sterilization, Infanticide, Drug and Alcohol Abuse During
Pregnancy, Female Circumcision
3. Legal Issues Involving Gender and Criminal Law: rape, Domestic Violence
4. Issues Involving Education
5. Gender and Employment: Legal Issues Involving Restrictive Access to Certain
Occupations; discriminatory Practices in Hiring and promotion; Sexual Harassment,
Family Leave Policies.
6. Legal Issues Involving Women and Property; Women and Inheritance
7. Legal Issues Involving Women and Development; Women in Political Process
FLAW 453/417 Environmental Law I
Introduction: Evolution, Nature, Object and Development of International Environmental Law
and Policy. The Sources of International Environmental Law. Breaches of Environmental Law and
Liability for Environmental Harm, Regulation of Environmental Sectors – International/Domestic
(Protection of Marine Environment Against Pollution, Protecting Inland Waters and Rivers,
Combating Air Pollution, Protection of Wildlife). Trans Sectoral Problems (Toxic or Dangerous
Products and Wastes, Radio activity, Ozone Depletion, Global Warming). Environmental Impact
Assessment.
FLAW 454/418 Environmental Law II
Marine Environment, Biodiversity Conservation, Regionalism: Africa and the EC, The Ghanaian
Environment, Trade, War, Human Rights and the Environment: An overview.
FLAW 465/493 Criminology I
The meaning, nature and scope of criminology. The evolution of criminological thought:
anthropological theories; biological theories, socio-economic and environmental theories, War,
migration and other factors. Phenomenology, Aetiology of crime; Victimology. Legal principles
relating to insanity, mental deficiency and other forms of mental in capacity. Criminological
Aspects of Victimless Offences: Prostitution, Homosexuality and Lesbianism; Gambling. Crimes
of Violence: Robbery, Homicide, Rape and Sexual Offences. Organised Crime: White Collar
Offences and Economic Crimes. Theories of Criminal Behaviour.
FLAW 466/494 Criminology II
1. Drug Addiction and Alcoholism: Drug Law Enforcement. Juvenile Gangs and
Delinquency; Child Abuse and Juvenile Justice.
2. Sentencing; Theories of Punishment: Custodial And Non-Custodial Punishment:
Community Service.
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3. The Prisons, Borstal Institutions and Prisoners’ Rights, Treatment Techniques and
Strategies.
4. U.N. Standard Minimum Rules, Torture.
5. Health Needs of Prisoners, Vocational, Technical and Religious Orientation.
6. The Police and Law Enforcement – Mob Control.
7. Criminological Research, Statistics and Forecasting.
8. Traditional and Modern Crime Control Programmes and Roles of NGOs, Social Workers,
and Religious Bodies.
9. Destitution: Orphanage; Street Children; Begging for Alms, the Aged and Handicapped,
Including Lepers and Lunatic Patients.
FLAW 487 Insurance Law I
The Nature of Insurance: The Contract of Insurance – Relation to contracts of Gaming and Wagering
– The distinction between Gaming Contracts and Insurance Contracts and its development – “p.p.i.”
and “honour” policies – Types of Insurance – Marine and non- Marine risks – the distinguishing
features of marine, life, fire and liability insurance.
The Concept of Insurable Interest: Development of the concept of insurable interest – the principle of
indemnity and its relation to insurable - types of insurable interest. New developments.
The making of an Insurance contract: The insurance agent; nature of his authority and his liability –
The Contract and special terminology – the nature, contents and function of the proposal form –
interim receipts and cover notes.
FLAW 488 Insurance Law II
The rights and Duties of the Parties under the Contract: The principle of utmost good faith - the
materiality of disclosures by the insured – the effect of non-disclosure and misrepresentation –overand
under-insurance - payment of the premium – return of the premium and its consequences.
Claims: The right to make a claim – the quantum of the claim – the “loss” that creates an entitlement
to claim – Salvage and the insurer’s entitlement to it.
Motor Vehicles (Third Party) Insurance – an outline of case-law and practice in Ghana.
Note: Students offering this course will be expected to have more than an average grasp of the
principles of governing the law of standard contracts. During the course they will be expected to
familiarize themselves with the main forms of standard policies in use in motor and fire insurance in
Ghana.